Hackers are a group of people who get a hand on someone else’s sensitive information without their permission. Hacking often refers to an unauthorized intrusion into a network or a computer; normally performed by one or more hackers.
However, a hacker can be anyone they can be an individual like you or me.
They work on their own or can be employed by an organization. These organizations have the motivation to disrupt something or cause havoc -unnecessarily.
They alter security systems in order to achieve their objective, which differs from the actual purpose of the system.
There are also many organizations that hire hackers as part of their staff.
These hackers use their skills to identify flaws, vulnerable areas, and weak spots in the organization’s security system.
This is done to identify, correct weaknesses, and to prevent malicious hackers from breaking into the security system.
Types of Hackers around the Globe
White, black, and gray refer to the relationship between the hackers and the systems they are attacking.
Black Hat’ Hackers
Black-hat hackers are individuals who attempt to gain unauthorized access to a system or network. They exploit them for malicious reasons. Black-hat hackers have no permission or authority to compromise their targets.
They seek damage by compromising security systems, by altering the functions of websites and networks, or by shutting down systems.
They often do so to steal or gain access to passwords, financial information, and other personal information.
‘White Hat’ Hackers
White-hat hackers, on the other hand, are the good guys. They work with organizations to help improve the security of the system.
A white hat has the right to set targets and compromise them within the predefined rules of engagement.
White-hat hackers are frequently referred to as ethical hackers.
They specialize in ethical hacking tools, techniques, and methodologies to secure the information systems of an organization.
Unlike black-hat hackers, ethical hackers are exploiting security networks and looking for backdoors when they are legally allowed to do so.
White-hat hackers always reveal any vulnerabilities they find in the company’s security system. So that they can be fixed before they are exploited by malicious actors.
‘Grey Hat’ Hackers
Gray hats utilize networks and computer systems in the way that black hats do, but do that without any malicious intent, exposing any loopholes and vulnerabilities to law enforcement agencies or intelligence agencies.
Normally, these hackers surf the internet and hack into systems to inform the administrator or owner that their system/network contains one or more security flaws that need to be fixed immediately.
They will also extort the hacked, offering to resolve the fault for a nominal fee.
Common Hacking Tools
To accomplish the perfect hack, hackers use a wide variety of techniques, such as:
A rootkit is a program or set of software tools that enable threat actors to gain remote access to control a computer system that interacts or connects to the Internet.
Originally, it was developed to open a backdoor system to fix specific software issues.
Needless to say, this program is now being used by hackers to destroy the control of the operating system from its legitimate user.
There are many different ways to install rootkits in the targeted computer, the most famous of which is social engineering and phishing attacks.
Once the rootkits are installed on the system, it secretly enables the hacker to access and control the system, giving them the opportunity to delete the system or steal crucial data.
This is a specifically made tool that logs or records every key that is pressed on the system.
Key loggers record every keystroke by clinging to the Application Programming Interface (API) when typed through a computer keyboard.
The recorded file is then saved, which includes data such as usernames, screenshots, website visit details, open applications, etc.
Key Loggers capture credit card numbers, personal messages, mobile numbers, passwords, and other details – as long as they are typed.
Normally, it comes as malware that allows cybercriminals to steal sensitive information.
A vulnerability scanner classifies and detects various security flaws in networks, computers, communications networks, etc.
This is one of the most common practices used by ethical hackers. They use this to find and fix possible outcomes on an immediate basis.
On the other hand, vulnerability scanners can be used by black-hat hackers to check the system for potential weak spots to scam the system.
Common Hacking Techniques
SQL Injection Attack
The Structured Query Language (SQL) is designed to use data in a database. It is a type of cyber-attack that targets databases to trick systems via SQL statements.
This type of attack is carried out via a website interface that attempts to issue SQL commands through a database to hack usernames, passwords, and other database information.
Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS)
DDoS is a type of malicious attack that distorts normal traffic to enter a server, inundating network traffic (resulting in a denial of service).
It acts like a traffic jam that blocks the road and prevents regular traffic from arriving at its destination.
Devices that are easily connected to the network (such as computers, IoT devices, mobile phones, etc.) are prone to DDoS attacks.